02 Hypertext in Context

Matt Price

Created: 2017-09-19 Tue 10:03

Computers Then and Now

Calculation - What is it?

  • spiritual quality or mechanical drudgery?

Eighteenth-century philosophers conceived of intelligence and even moral sentiment to be in their essence forms of calculation. Allied with the higher mental faculties of speculative reason and moral judgment, calculation was remote from the realm of menial labor, of the automatic and the habitual…

Calculation might be described as a ‘spritual exercise’, repeated routines of the mind designed to strengthen and shape the soul as athletic exercises strengthened and shaped the body. What calculation taught its practitioners was what Condorcet called the ‘exactitude of the mind’.

The division of Mental Labour

  • Smith’s pin-makers
  • Prony’s Log-calculators
  • Babbage’s Engine

Adam Smith and the Division of Labour


Gaspard de Prony and the “Monument to Calculation”


Calculating machines


Bush’s Differential Analyzer



  • scientific mobilization
  • Atomic Bomb
  • The problem of fusion; ENIAC

Emulating the Mind

  • logic, calculation, memory, and thought




Packet Switching


Protocol Stack

ruswp_diag2.gif tcp.gif

Network Topologies

  • History of Networked computers
  • The Internet; DARPA; Packet switching
  • protocol stacks
  • URI’s
  • Envelope game (for packet switching). Need paper for that.
  • what did you learn?

From Internet to Web


What’s “hyper” about Hypertext?


Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Alban, Kt PC QC (ˈbeɪkən; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution.

Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.[4] His works established and popularised inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.